Metalworking oils are the various oils used to cool and lubricate metal workpieces when they are being worked, milled, etc. These oils reduce heat and friction due to interplay of the cutting tool and the workpiece and thus help prevent burning and smoking. Metalworking oils also help improve the quality of the workpiece by removing fine chips from the cutting tool as well as the surface of the workpiece. These oils are normally made of mineral, vegetable, or synthetic oils and contain additives within them. They fall under the following four basic classes:
Types of Metalworking Oils/Fluids
Straight Oils: These oils are also called "cutting" or "neat" oils and are usually made of mineral (petroleum), vegetable or synthetic oils. They are often diluted with water, but other additives may also be present. These oils provide good lubrication, effective anti-weld and corrosion and rust protection qualities. Moreover, they also don’t get rancid and make for stable solutions.
Soluble Oils (emulsifiable oils): These oils are severely refined (up to 30 to 85 percent) from mineral (petroleum) oils as well as emulsifiers. They provide good lubrication, coolant features, effective anti-weld and corrosion and rust protection qualities.
Semi-Synthetic Fluids: These are also severely refined (5 to 30 percent) from mineral (petroleum) oils and have about 30 to 50 percent water in addition to specific additives within them.
Synthetic Fluids: They use no petroleum-based oils but use detergent type components and other additives to keep the workpiece wet.
Choosing the Suitable Metalworking Oil for Your Application
When it comes to choosing the right metalworking oil for your machinery, you may need to consider the surface where it’s to be applied and whether it will need more lubrication because it gets dry fast during the process, or it needs more coolant as it gets hotter quickly and may produce more smoke. Straight oil could be a good choice for lubrication but may have some limitations when it comes to its effect as a coolant; similarly semi-synthetic oil can act as a good coolant but may not offer the required lubricity, especially during a long work process.
So, the choice of metalworking oils depends on the surface it is to be applied on and also on the process and its duration. Some popular types of these products available in the market include Divyol Hydraulic Oil, CRC SUPERCUT II, CRC LUB 21, CRC ECO SUPERCUT, CRC SUPER TAPPING FLUID II, Divyol Cutting Oil, Engine Oil Divyol 15W40, and Engine Oil Divyol 20W40. They come in standard packaging of 5 Ltr, 25 Ltr etc. Some of the popular brands of metalworking oils are CRC, Gandhar etc.
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