What is SMPS Switched Mode Power Supply?
SMPS or Switched-Mode Power Supply is a device that uses a switching regulator as a medium to control and stabilize the output voltage by switching the load current on and off. These power supplies offer efficient power conversion and reduce the overall power losses. Basically it’s a device in which energy conversion and regulation is done using a mix of inductors, capacitors and other electronics unit units that are continuously switching “on” and “off” at high frequency.
These suppliers have higher efficiencies that is why they are widely used in a variety of electronic equipment which include computers and other sensitive equipment requiring stable and efficient power supply. They are widely used in electronics because of their advantages offered in terms of size, weight, cost, efficiency and overall performance.
What is the Need of SMPS- Switched Mode Power Supply?
The power drawn from the power units cannot be directly supplied to the ICs and other electronic components that are used in electronic devices in the automated office and factory equipment without destroying the components due to the very high voltage of commercial AC power.
Therefore there is a need of devices that can transform and regulate these high power to a small scale. These devices are known as power supplies or regulated DC power supplies. They are required to convert commercial AC power into regulated DC power which can drive ICs and other electronic components.
Working of Switched Mode Power Supply
Switch-mode power supply converts AC power into high-frequency DC power using the high-speed switching of semiconductors. Switch-mode power supplies are so compact, light, and efficient that they are used as power supplies in most electronic devices.
The basic concept behind a switch-mode power supply or SMPS is the fact that the regulation is done with the help of switching regulators. Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-off time.
Switch-mode power supply terminology
Switch-mode power supply technology may be referred to by a number of similar terms. While they all look at the same basic technology, they refer to different elements of the overall technology:
Common Terminology are as follows:-
#1)Switch-mode power supply
The term switch mode power supply is generally used where they can be connected to the mains or any other external supply so that power can be generated in the required form.
#2)Switch mode regulator
This typically refers to the component which provides regulation. A switch-mode regulator will be a part or a sub-unit of the overall switch mode power supply.
#3)Switch mode regulator controller
Most of the switch-mode regulator integrated circuits do not contain switching elements. They are required because the external series switching element would be able to handle the higher current and voltage level as well as the resultant power dissipation more effectively and efficiently.
Classifications of SMPS
Classification of Smps according to the type of input and output voltages which are as follows :-
- AC to DC
- DC to DC
- DC to AC
- AC to AC
Classification of Smps on the basis of working:-
- C. to D.C. Converter
- Forward Converter:
- Flyback Converter:
- Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter
The power received from AC mains is rectified and filtered as high voltage DC. It is then switched at a high rate of speed and fed to the primary side of the step-down transformer. The step-down transformer is small in size thereby relieves the size and weight problems.
The filtered and rectified output at the secondary side of the transformer is now sent to rectifiers, filters, and regulators. A part of this power output is sent back to the switch to control the output voltage.
A forward converter is a type of switching mode power supply that transfers the energy from the primary to the secondary part of the transformer while the switching element is “on,” which is the opposite of a flyback converter. The output voltage is determined by the input voltage which depends on the transformer’s turn ratio and the duty cycle.
The diode carries the current during the OFF period of the transistor and therefore energy flows to the load during both the periods. The choke stores energy during the ON period and also passes some energy into the output load. The forward converter is also known as a DC-DC buck converter.
The flyback converter is derived from buck-boost topology with the inductor split to form a transformer. This is done so that the voltage ratios are multiplied with an additional advantage of isolation. Here the magnetic field of the inductor stores energy during the ON period of the switch. The transformer provides a voltage ratio from input to output and the advantage of galvanic isolation.
The energy is then passed into the output voltage circuit when the switch is in the open state. The duty cycle determines the output voltage. The flyback converter is used in both AC-DC and DC-DC conversion with galvanic isolation between the input and any output sides.
4)Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter
This is a type of Smps where flyback converter does not require a separate oscillator but the switching of the primary current is achieved by a built-in self-oscillatory action. During the conduction time of the switching transistor, the current through the transformer primary starts ramping up linearly with the slope equal to Vin/Lp.
The voltage induced in the secondary winding and the feedback winding makes the fast recovery rectifier reverse biased and hold the conducting transistor ON. When the primary current reaches a peak value Ip, where the core begins to saturate, the current tends to rise very sharply. This sharp rise in current cannot be supported by the fixed base drive provided by the feedback winding as a result, the switching begins to come out of saturation.
List of Useful Things to Know Before Selection of a Power Supply
- Input Supply
- Output Supply
- Mounting methods
- Safety standards
Advantages Of SMPS- Switched Mode Power Supply
- High efficiency
- Compact and light
- Flexible technology
- Compact, and light.
- A wide input voltage range.
List of SMPS Brands Industrybuying are Offering
OMRON provides various types of power Supplies, like the type mounted to DIN rail or the type built into the equipment. OMRON also brings to you the S8VS which provides alert notification in case of replacement timing and a buffer block that handles intermittent power interruptions and other highly trusted power supplies at the same time.
MEANWELL has proven to meet different power supply requirements of numerous industries with a comprehensive line of product, the flexibility of production, planned stock, and a global channel. It has an established track record of providing the best cost/ performance ratio of standard power supplies (PQC) and services (DSR) AC / DC power supply, LED driver, AC / DC battery chargers, DC / DC converters, and DC / AC inverter.
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